Present, praesens is a grammatical category of time, which means that the explanation of the situation described in the statement includes the moment of speech. Cf. rus. girl singing, lat. puella cantat – action at the moment of speech; rus. victory loves care, lat. amat victoria curam – constantly correct, constant state of affairs.
The verb in the present tense can also express declension (conditional, desirable, etc.) and pledge (active/passive). The nature of the tense is expressed in different languages through the grammatical category of the verb form (perfect, imperfect, long, etc.) and sometimes also through subspecies and modes of verb action.
In some languages, the present is a grammatical category of noun, meaning that the subject exists at present (rather than, say, will be constructed or destroyed).
Grammatical forms and their meanings
In Russian there is one generally accepted , the main form of the present is the present of an imperfect kind (answering the question what am I doing? What are we doing? etc.), but it has a developed network of values described by philologists for Russian and other languages. In some other languages – for example, in English and Turkish – this form corresponds to several different forms of species and tenses, but English Vidotemporal verb forms have several meanings. The present actual in the narrow sense refers to an action taking place at the moment of speech about it ( I am dining now at lunchtime and this value of the Russian form corresponds to the English present long form ( I am dining now in its main meaning the second value [ 4] of which ” the extended present when the action takes place for a limited period of time called by a circumstance of time ( This month he is dining at work this month that opposes the present constant action ( I am dining now in the English form of the present simple / undefined). – He is dining at work this month, but he usually dines at home). The present permanent act (present permanent) may be accompanied by circumstances of a wide period of beingness, but it may also be without them: All my life I feel the bitterness of the fact that there is an abyss between me and my children (Yashin. I treat you to mountain ash). The life does not stand on a place … (Bunin. Epitaphia); Verstah in three from Kislovodsk, in gorge where Podkumok flows, there is a rock called the Ring … (Lermontov. Princess Mary). . Read more information on this site https://argoprep.com/blog/usage-rules-for-present-perfect-tense/
In general, the present actual, binding called action to the moment of speech is opposed to the present irrelevant action, which is not binding to the moment of speech; such opposition of the action, binding to a certain moment of time, and the action, not localized in the time of beingness, was noted in the Slavic verbs of the 19th century by scientists. A. A. Potebnya wrote: “Slavonic verbs can mean an action either at the time it is performed – specifically (I write now, I wrote when it entered), or as an opportunity of it, an ability, a habit to it (I do not write badly; I write… in the evenings) – distracted. In some cases, as in the above case, these values are not formally different … but in other cases, these values are different and formally”. This is a category of temporary localization / non-localization.
Connection of the present with the past
The present and present situation, which sometimes began long before the statement was made.
In English there are 4 video-temporal forms, in the name of which there is the present (English Present). In addition to the Present Perfect and Present Simple mentioned above, the Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous are the Present Perfect and the Present Perfect Continuous, which express the relationship between past and present.
These vernacular forms of the verb denote an action or state that has begun in the past, the result of which is present in the Present of Beingness. In this case, the action in the short present tense could have already ended by the moment of speech, while in the long tense tense it continues by the very moment of speaking about this action:
- I have run 3 miles today (I have run 3 miles today – translation into Russian using the past tense of the perfect look, but unlike the actions in the simple past tense of English (Past Simple) called the period of time is not over yet);
- I have been running for 3 hours (I have been running / running for 3 hours – Russian translation by present time).
Verbs with static meanings cannot be used in English for long periods of time, and even if the situation persists, the present perfect is not long: I have known him for 10 years. – I’ve known him for 10 years.