Of these, only two are generally used in cows and are bovine plasma and hyperimmune serum [1, 2]. In ruminant transfusion practice, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) can be used for treatment of hypogammaglobulinemia (failure of passive transfer) in calves [3, 4]. fraction have significantly different concentrations (g/dL) when compared to prestorage. This study has shown IgG protein fraction stability in bovine fresh frozen plasma collected for transfusion; therefore, bovine fresh frozen plasma seems to be suitable for the treatment of hypogammaglobulinemia (failure of passive transfer) in calves when stored for 12 months at ?20C. 1. Introduction Fractionated blood products in farm Nisoxetine hydrochloride animal transfusion medicine include packed RBCs, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), leukocyte-rich plasma, normal bovine plasma, and hyperimmune serum. Of these, only two are frequently used Nisoxetine hydrochloride in cows and are bovine plasma and hyperimmune serum [1, 2]. In ruminant transfusion practice, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) can be used for treatment of hypogammaglobulinemia (failure of passive transfer) in calves [3, 4]. Calves are born hypogammaglobulinemic and require colostrum to supply immunoglobulins during the neonatal period. Neonatal calf health is largely dependent on the ingestion and absorption of maternally derived antibodies via colostrum consumption . Failure of passive transfer (inadequate circulating IgG concentration) in calves is a common condition that predisposes calves to increased morbidity and mortality and there is a link between low serum globulins and the incidence of infectious diseases . The Anxa5 importance of the ingestion and absorption of colostral immunoglobulins on morbidity, mortality, growth, and future productivity of dairy calves has been described . Calves with inadequate passive transfer of colostral Nisoxetine hydrochloride immunoglobulins have an increased risk of death during the first 3 months after birth , a decreased rate of weight gain , and a decreased survival rate until the end of the first lactation [10, 11]. Many studies that have evaluated bovine serum administration have shown this to be an effective source of exogenous passive Ig for newborn calves [2, 5, 6, 12C15]. In dogs and mice plasma proteins appear to be stable during storage when frozen [16, 17]. Previous studies showed that there was no significant change in total protein and globulin fractions, compared with baseline values, in samples of frozen animal plasma stored for up to 7 days [16C18]. Most of these studies, however, were carried out on plasma obtained from blood, which had been collected using a needle and syringe, and transferred into lithium-heparin tubes. These conditions are quite different from those used for preparation of plasma intended for transfusion purposes which is typically separated from blood collected using a closed system into bags containing citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine-1 (CPDA-1) anticoagulant and stored in plastic bags at ?20C. Furthermore, there is a lack of information about the protein stability of frozen bovine plasma. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the bovine plasma obtained with anticoagulant CPDA-1 could be electrophoresed and to evaluate Nisoxetine hydrochloride the effects of storage conditions on TP and globulin fractions in fresh frozen bovine plasma units prepared and stored for use in transfusion. Nisoxetine hydrochloride 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Blood Collection This prospective study was performed as an internal quality control at the Veterinary Transfusion Unit Blood Bank of University of Milan (REV). Blood was collected from 20 healthy lactating adult Holstein Friesian donors. Before and after blood collection all cows were given a standard physical examination . A total volume of 4?L of blood was collected from each cow. The protocol for this study was approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee for Animal Care at University of Milan (http://www.unimi.it/cataloghi/comitato_etico/CE_19dic2012_verbale.pdf). A closed-collection system was used, consisting of sterile human 450?mL blood bags (TERUMO CPDA-1 triple blood.