Although ASCs exhibit similarities to the BMSCs, there are several distinct characteristics between these 2 types of stem cells, such as their differentiation potential and the complement of cell surface markers. that individuals with Masitinib mesylate OA who received arthroscopy lavage and debridement did not show any improvements in the pain score and physical functions compared with a placebo group who underwent a sham surgery, a group that received optimized therapy, and a group that underwent physical therapy. The publication of these two landmark studies was followed by the upgrade of the guidelines for the treatment of OA from the United Kingdom’s National Institute for Health and Care Superiority, which no longer recommends arthroscopy as a treatment for OA (1). The final resort for a patient with OA who has progressed to the most severe grade would be a total joint alternative. However, the procedure for joint replacements may cause unbearable pain and requires a long period for rehabilitation. The adverse results observed in individuals who undergo total knee substitute surgery include myocardial infarction, infections and pulmonary embolism (34). 3. Stem cell therapy The inconsistency of palliative treatments for OA spotlight the need for a more reliable and curative approach that targets the root cause of OA; the degeneration of articular cartilage. Hence, the notion of stem cell therapy offers galvanized intensive investigation into its potential use for treatment of OA, due to its regenerative properties. Owing to their superb self-renewing capacity as well the ability to differentiate into 200 cell types, the use of stem cells in cellular therapy offers ushered in an fascinating fresh epoch for the fields of regenerative medicine with grounds for optimism to address the present unmet medical needs to treat a variety of degenerative diseases, including OA (35). At present, three types of stem cells are commonly studied with regard to stem cell therapy: Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and adult stem cells, and these are discussed below. Masitinib mesylate ESCs ESCs are considered to be totipotent stem cells derived from the fertilized zygote cell, wherein the embryo is usually 4-5 days aged Masitinib mesylate (35,36). The use of embryonic stem cells offers generated honest concerns, particularly with regard to how they are acquired (37). Hence, it is restricted for use in biomedical study only, and is to day, illegal for use as a treatment of any diseases, as their remains a notable bone of contention on the substantial honest issues that arise, given that an embryo must be aborted to obtain the ESCs (37,38). iPSCs As one of the major revolutions in stem cell study, the recognition and desire for study on iPSCs was spurred on from the honest issues raised on the sourcing of ESCs (39,40). iPSCs were first found out in 2006 by Takahashi and Yamanaka (39) who successfully reprogrammed the terminally differentiated fibroblast to an iPSC via intro of four transcription factors, the so called Yamanaka factors; Sox2, Oct3/4, Klf4 and c-Myc (39,41). Much like ESCs, iPSCs show a high degree of pluripotency, with the additional good thing about circumventing the honest concerns regarding the use of ESCs. Despite its initial promise like a potential substitute for ESCs however, the transition to iPSC study for medical applications highlighted several obstacles Rabbit Polyclonal to YOD1 inherent to the use of iPSCs for cellular therapy, which includes genomic instability, immunogenicity, teratoma formation and clonal variations amongst iPSCs derived from the same donor cells, therefore raising major concerns on the security of their use clinically (40,42,43). Adult stem cells Adult stem cells are usually found in differentiated cells of specific cells after birth, and are further classified into hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) (44). The regeneration of the damaged cells using adult stem cells was greeted like a breakthrough in relatively recent years, and offers exhibited encouraging results when utilized for treatment of several chronic degenerative conditions, such as degenerative disc disease, Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Several studies have shown the security and effectiveness of adult stem cells for the treatment of several diseases (45-47). HSCs HSCs are the building blocks for the production of blood cells, including the erythrocyte and leukocyte lineages, as well as platelets (48,49)..